Application 3.2. Russian silhouette

 

 

RAS Russian silhouette icon

 

 

Introduction

 

 

Looking at old photos of Russian cities, it's hard to hide admiration for their beautiful silhouette. Silhouette - a conditional line between objects located on the ground and the atmosphere - looks so good that immediately the following questions arise:

 

1. What is the reason for this attraction?
2. Why do the silhouettes of our time often lose the silhouettes of the past?
3. Have such samples remained to this day more or less unchanged?
4. What should I do?

 

Let's try in this small study to find all the answers listed above.

 

 

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Century present and century past

 

 

First panorama

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. Original image

 

 

As a first example, let's look at the panorama of Arkhangelsk. All the visible elements on the photo correspond to the period before 1917. They can be divided into three categories:

 

1. Elements of the landscape (trees, ponds, relief, etc.)
2. Ordinary buildings (residential, small public, industrial buildings, etc.)
3. High-altitude dominants (pipes of factories, fire towers, and, of course, temples)

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. The selection of the silhouette of the city in the original image

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. Silhouette

 

 

Focusing on the original image, we determine the location of elements from each category:

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. Landscape elements

 

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. Terraced houses

 

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. High-altitude dominants

 

 

 

Interacting with each other, these components organize the circuit of interest to us. The diagram below shows the distribution of roles in the city's silhouette:

 

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. Analysis of the silhouette

 

 

 

Attractiveness is created by the harmony of all three components. The first two components - ordinary buildings and landscape elements - do not suppress each other; in particular, the heights of the buildings are little different from the height of the trees. The number of both is balanced - the plants do not completely cover the city, but the city also leaves space for organic. Both are involved in building the profile, both are interesting and visible.

 

The third element is high-altitude dominants. They are usually higher than the rest, their architecture is more elaborate than in the ordinary building. They are visible from all points in the vicinity of the settlement, being spatial reference points. If you do not take into account the cynical view of things, churches (most often the tallest buildings) in their meaning are carriers of higher, unearthly, the desire for the unknown, to what is beyond the boundaries of scientific knowledge. & Nbsp; Symbolize the best that is in every person. They form the individuality of the Russian anthropogenic, add something intangible and necessary.

 

Now let's try to simplify the resulting scheme:

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. Simplify the silhouette

 

 

The simplified outline of the old Arkhangelsk resembles modernity. This is how the standard Russian city looks. But there is a fundamental difference. The fact is that the high-rise dominants of modern large settlements are dominant temporarily - while the surrounding buildings do not overgrow them and turn the landscape into an alternation of stone walls. In addition, the difference in the aesthetic level of the high-rise dominants of the past and present is striking.

 

 

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The degradation of buildings differing in height from the ordinary construction of buildings during the last century: a comparison of their aesthetic qualities with examples from different eras (past and present)

 

 

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Moscow. Example of a bad silhouette in one of the sleeping areas

 

 

Modern multi-storey buildings, as a rule, are ugly, their height is dictated by the desire to solve financial problems facing developers. Unlike the temples of the past, they do not symbolize anything other than greed and dehumanization.

 

The outline of the old city was relatively constant - new churches were built, but did not change the situation, only complementing it and completely fitting into the original concept. Ordinary buildings also remained small and medium-rise, did not block trees and temples, expanding in the sides, and not upwards.

 

With further simplification of the silhouette scheme of Arkhangelsk, the alternation of elements can be expressed as follows:

 

 

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Arkhangelsk. The ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

It is difficult to establish a mathematical pattern. But the diagram clearly shows the described system consisting of several components and their alternation.

 

Next, we consider examples of old Russian cities, where all three elements of the system interact effectively: landscape elements, rank buildings and high-altitude dominants.

 

 

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Panoramas & nbsp; Russian cities, considered in this paper: 1 - Vyatka; 2 - Yekaterinburg; 3 - Tver; 4 - Torzhok; 5 - Ostashkov; 6 - Solikamsk; 7 - Toropets; 8 - Saratov

 

 

 

Vyatka

 

 

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 Panorama of Vyatka: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Yekaterinburg

 

 

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Panorama of Ekaterinburg: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Tver

 

 

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Panorama of Tver: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Torzhok

 

 

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Panorama of Torzhok: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Ostashkov

 

 

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Panorama Ostashkov: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Solikamsk

 

 

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Panorama of Solikamsk: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Toropets

 

 

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Panorama of Toropets: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

Saratov

 

 

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Panorama of Saratov: I - the original image; II - the same, with a silhouette; III - the silhouette of the city; IV - analysis of the silhouette; V - simplification of the silhouette; VI is the ratio of the elements of the silhouette

 

 

 

The current situation and the vector of development

 

 

We examined the panoramas of the cities of the past, quite sympathetic and entitled to exist. But is there anything like this today?

 

Yes, there are such examples. This settlement, development or reverse development of which during the XX - beginning. XXI centuries. were insignificant for one reason or another (group Ia). Here you can distinguish, for example, Suzdal, Gorodets, Ples, Kologriv, Chukhlomu, Toropets, etc. There is little new building in them, and it is mostly low-rise; the population increased slightly during the period under review. Destructions (intentional or unintentional) are also not very common on the general background. & Nbsp; & nbsp; The only negative factor for the formation of the silhouette in such places is only too luxuriant vegetation, covering most of the ordinary buildings and even high-altitude dominants.

 

 

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Too much presence of a landscape component, even high-altitude dominants are lost - Ostashkov (left) and Torzhok

 

 

In order to achieve the ideal state (group IIa) for settlements of this type, the following recommendations can be applied:

 

1. Restriction of vegetation, for exposing buildings and revitalizing the landscape (trees and nettles are good, but everything should be in moderation)

 

 

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Landscaping is superfluous & nbsp; and balanced - Vladivostok (left) and Stavanger

 

 

2. Conservation of the silhouette - a ban on building above a certain level. In this case & nbsp; expansion of the boundaries of the settlement is permitted.

 

 

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City with a degraded and conserved silhouette - Tula (left) and Venice

 

 

Settlements of the next group Ib after the storming of the Winter Palace developed quite violently and lost their "Russian silhouette". Examples: Moscow, Tula, Vladimir, Nizhny Novgorod, Tver, etc. They are characterized by the following features:

 
1. Chaotic development of high-rise and high-rise buildings, accompanied by the demolition of the old fund.
2. Excessive vegetation - also badly affects the perception of the environment, hiding what should be seen.

 

Here the following measures are recommended:

 

1. Conservation of the historical center with the restoration of what remains, the reconstruction of what is no longer and the demolition of everything new.
2. Regulation of the number of green spaces.
3. Regulation of building height in new areas.

 

Here it is necessary to clarify that the author allows different forms of organization of architectural volumes. In principle, multi-storey and high-rise buildings may well be built and be in demand, but with the condition that they will not be a "false jaw" for medium and low-rise areas. Therefore, a satisfactory solution of both economic and aesthetic needs will not be a complete ban on the construction of such buildings, but a smooth increase in the number of storeys as far as the distance from the center. In addition, the multi-storeyed volumes that hide the Russian silhouette can be separated from the valuable part of the settlement by a landscape buffer (for example, trees or a pronounced relief) (group IIb). It is also possible to have a multi-storey building at a considerable distance from historical centers (group IIc). With a significant distance, these buildings can not play any significant role in the silhouette.

 

 

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Schemes of the silhouettes of the present and future: Ia - populated areas with little changed during the period of the XX - beginning. ХХI centuries. silhouette; Ib - populated areas with a strong change during the period of the XX - beginning. ХХI centuries. silhouette; IIa - the ideal scheme; IIb - compromise scheme - the share of multi-storey buildings in the formation of the silhouette is lowered due to the relief; IIв - a compromise scheme - the share of multi-storey building in the formation of the silhouette is reduced due to the great distance from the historical center

 

 

 

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Examples from different groups that exist today or have disappeared: Ia - Ostashkov; Ib - Tula; IIа - Pskov; IIb - Karlovy Vary; IIв - Prague

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

So, the system, thanks to which the profile of the majority of Russian cities was formed before the beginning-middle of the 20th century, is quite simple. Only three components, the correct use of which leads to the return of a beautiful silhouette: landscape elements, ranks and high-altitude dominants. Each component emphasizes and complements the other, creating harmony.

 

The implementation of the solutions proposed here will effectively solve two very important problems of modern Russia - the lack of visual beauty and the lack of identity.

 

 

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Russian architectural strategy
Goals
Methods
Methods
1.1. Creating a friendly environment
1.1. Creating a friendly environment
We will be able to rise to a qualitatively new level of life if we make the world around us friendlier and get rid of the aggressive elements of the visual environment. The human habitat should be comfortable and positive. This can be achieved not only through the introduction of correct ethical norms, but also by visual methods that affect architecture, improvement, design and engineering systems. More information about Creating a friendly environment can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.1. Refusal of aggressive elements of the environment
1.1.1. Refusal of aggressive elements of the environment
The world around us is often aggressive. The strategy proposes to remove what worsens the comfort indicators: unnecessarily high fences, barbed wire, lattices on windows, chain dogs, badges with disrespectful inscriptions such as "Do not rub out here," etc. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.2. Increased street illumination
1.1.2. Increased street illumination
Often, even densely populated areas are so poorly lit that moving around them becomes unsafe. Enhance the sense of security will help install various elements of street lighting. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.3. Love for the place you live in
1.1.3. Love for the place you live in
Lyrical point, which is no less important than the rest. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.4. Waiver of the ghetto
1.1.4. Waiver of the ghetto
We are against areas with a socially homogeneous population. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.5. Accessible Environment
1.1.5. Accessible Environment
The urban environment should be convenient and highly accessible to all categories of the population. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.6. Creation of comfortable and beautiful public spaces
1.1.6. Creation of comfortable and beautiful public spaces
The beginning of the 21st century showed the possibility of developing new interesting types of public spaces. There were more opportunities for the formation of the right mood of society through the transformation of the environment in which its representatives are located. Convenient streets, squares, parks and squares - all this is an important direction of development. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.7. Free access
1.1.7. Free access
Access to public buildings and, especially, to public territory, should be free. The strategy refuses to support the paranoid model of the visual environment. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.8. Quality change of elements of urban design
1.1.8. Quality change of elements of urban design
Small objects of the architectural environment, despite the small volume, have a significant impact on the quality of life. At the same time, the cost of increasing their aesthetic level by orders of magnitude is lower than the cost of the same procedure for large objects. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.9. Down with the stumps!
1.1.9. Down with the stumps!
It is necessary to regularly remove the dead and infected plants and their parts, and replace them with good living, positive plants. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.10. Right for the roof
1.1.10. Right for the roof
Most modern urban buildings have flat roofs. The benefit of flat roofing is, among other things, the ability to go out on it - walking, admiring the views, sunbathing, breaking a small garden. In this case, the roof, as a rule, is closed for access even to the residents of the house. Why not open this opportunity? More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.1.11. Fighting icicles
1.1.11. Fighting icicles
In the winter. late autumn and early spring on our streets you can often see icicles. It's dangerous, it's ugly, and it can be eliminated. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2. Clean city
1.2. Clean city
Dirt, puddles and garbage are obvious problems in our settlements, which strongly affect the level of visual and tactile comfort. The strategy provides for effective solutions to such problems. More information about the Clean City can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.1. Application of closed garbage containers
1.2.1. Application of closed garbage containers
Some of the garbage is carried by wind and animals in cases where garbage collection containers are not equipped with covers. We must use containers with the ability to protect the waste from unwanted movements. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.2. Organization of closed storm drainage
1.2.2. Organization of closed storm drainage
The formation of puddles can be avoided if the amount of storm water falling on the surface is reduced. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.3. Less areas with open ground
1.2.3. Less areas with open ground
The open ground creates dirt and dust. Therefore, there should not be areas with open ground within the boundaries of the locality. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.4. The ban on the arrival of cars on the surface without a hard coating within the boundaries of the locality
1.2.4. The ban on the arrival of cars on the surface without a hard coating within the boundaries of the locality
When entering the ground without hard coating, the car produces its deformation, which causes the destruction of the grass cover and the adhesion of the soil to the wheels. This leads to dust and dirt. It becomes obvious the need for a ban on the entry of motor vehicles on a surface with a similar characteristic. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.5. Raising the level of the sidewalk and the carriageway relative to the level of the lawn
1.2.5. Raising the level of the sidewalk and the carriageway relative to the level of the lawn
Dirt on the cover of roads and sidewalks is often caused by soil runoff in the rain and melting snow from the landscaping areas. Therefore, it is proposed to raise the level of hard coatings relative to the soil level. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.6. General reconstruction of storm sewage
1.2.6. General reconstruction of storm sewage
Most of the storm sewer at the current time requires reconstruction, cleaning, complete replacement or expansion. In order to achieve the desired effect, it is important to carry out actions with respect to storm water sewage system immediately within the boundaries of the entire settlement, without delaying some of its plots for later. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.7. Compliance with the normative bias of coatings
1.2.7. Compliance with the normative bias of coatings
It is extremely important to observe the normative slope of the coatings - both longitudinal and transverse. Often, it is the failure to comply with the requirements of current norms on the bias leads to the formation of undesirable phenomena in the form of puddles and mud. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.8. Regular use of grader for maintenance of country roads
1.2.8. Regular use of grader for maintenance of country roads
In some areas of Russia (for example, in the Far North or in remote villages of the Middle Strip), the construction of paved roads is not economically justified. But this fact does not negate the need for caring for the road. Moreover, modern technology in the form of a grader with impressive efficiency copes with this task. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.2.9. Chistoman!
1.2.9. Chistoman!
Purely not where there are no litter (although this too), but where they clean. Therefore, sometimes it makes sense to take the initiative to clean up the garbage on yourself. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3. Optimization of the transport system
1.3. Optimization of the transport system
In such a large country as the Russian Federation, it is necessary to pay special attention to transport systems. Transport is what connects us all together. Well thought out infrastructure will save time and make our life more comfortable. And, importantly, it's safer. More information about the optimization of the transport system can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.1. Adopting the current system of transport priorities
1.3.1. Adopting the current system of transport priorities
The strategy adopts the most relevant for our time system of transport priorities. All decisions related to the formation of street space should be based on this system. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.2. The maximum possible pedestrian accessibility is a compact city
1.3.2. The maximum possible pedestrian accessibility is a compact city
The strategy takes a course toward the reduction of megacities in part because of the importance of ensuring easy transport accessibility of urban facilities. The ideal is a settlement, where you can get to the main facilities if you want to walk for more or less a short time. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.3. Pedestrian-friendly network of streets and public spaces
1.3.3. Pedestrian-friendly network of streets and public spaces
Pedestrian is the most important unit in the structure of movement. Accordingly, the network of streets and public spaces should be focused primarily on the pedestrian. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.4. Development of bicycle infrastructure
1.3.4. Development of bicycle infrastructure
Modern urbanism believes in the effectiveness of cycling. In addition to environmental benefits, a bicycle as a transport will also improve the health of the population. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.5. Development of public transport
1.3.5. Development of public transport
With a certain increase in welfare in cities, a situation arises when there are too many cars and they begin to get in the way. The development of public transport quite definitely allows to relieve traffic and accelerate the time of movement, as well as improve environmental parameters. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.6. Safe traffic
1.3.6. Safe traffic
The transport system should be as safe as possible for everyone - both for those who use vehicles and for those who are pedestrians. Increasing the level of security can be ensured by fairly simple measures. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.7. Paid parking in cities with increased motorization
1.3.7. Paid parking in cities with increased motorization
Where increased motorization begins to harm all citizens, discriminatory measures are required in relation to private vehicles. The most important of them is the introduction of paid parking. In extreme cases, it is also possible to limit the issuance of licenses for owning a personal vehicle. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.3.8. The introduction of intercepting parking in cities with large motorization
1.3.8. The introduction of intercepting parking in cities with large motorization
The use of personal vehicles is fully justified on the periphery of large cities, in small towns, in rural areas, in other places with poorly developed public transportation for some reason or another. In case of need to enter the center of a large city, suburban motorists may be offered a variant with an intercept parking (ie parking & nbsp; with the possibility of a further transfer to public transport). More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4. Total improvement of buildings condition
1.4. Total improvement of buildings condition
The facades and roof of the building are the visiting card of its owners. A good owner must respect people around and maintain his part of the visual environment in good condition. More information about Total improvement of buildings can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4.1. Repair of facades and roofs
1.4.1. Repair of facades and roofs "here and now" by the owners
The state of the building and the surrounding area & nbsp; is the responsibility of its owners. Based on these input data, the repair of the building (especially the exterior) must be done at the expense of the owners, without waiting for funding from the government structures. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4.2. Ban on the placement of
1.4.2. Ban on the placement of "their" windows and doors
Because the placement of dissimilar elements filling the apertures on the facade in most cases causes disharmony, it is recommended to prohibit the self-placement of such elements. The building design should include acceptable forms of windows, doors and stained-glass windows with all the necessary dimensions (including the dimensions of the imposts, mashrooms, etc.). More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4.3. The ban on placing air conditioners on facades
1.4.3. The ban on placing air conditioners on facades
Because modern industry produces many different models of air conditioners, and the location of their outdoor units & nbsp; on the wall, as a rule, the project is not defined, the facades of our buildings are highly destructured. In addition, the condensate drain is unorganized and causes known inconveniences. These effects can be eliminated only by prohibiting the use of front air conditioners. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4.4. The ban on the placement of satellite dishes on the facades
1.4.4. The ban on the placement of satellite dishes on the facades
Different models of satellite dishes placed on the walls of buildings in different places destruct the facade and sharply reduce its aesthetic value for the visual environment. An acceptable location for these elements are the roofs of buildings, and a centralized installation is desirable when several users are connected to one plate. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4.5. Prohibition of cluttering balconies
1.4.5. Prohibition of cluttering balconies
Because balconies, loggias, verandas, terraces and exploited roofs are not only a part of personal space, but also a part of public space, it will be correct to note that the owner should pay close attention to the arrangement of these elements. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.4.6. Regulation of color decisions
1.4.6. Regulation of color decisions
Color decisions within a single building must be determined in advance by the project, a departure from them during the repair process is excluded. In order to be able to choose an alternative in the project, it is possible to specify several variants of color schemes. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5. The preservation and regeneration of the historical environment
1.5. The preservation and regeneration of the historical environment
Let's be honest: the modern system for preserving the historical environment does not work. The strategy offers a qualitatively new approach to fixing our architectural heritage. More information about the preservation and regeneration of the historical environment can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.1. The transition from the protection of individual architectural monuments to the protection of the historical zone as a whole
1.5.1. The transition from the protection of individual architectural monuments to the protection of the historical zone as a whole
The strategy presupposes the protection of the whole historical zone of cities within the boundaries of 1917 and 1955. The old course for the protection of only outstanding monuments of architecture is being canceled - every building corresponding to the established time boundary is considered a monument. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.2. Recreating the lost historical zone
1.5.2. Recreating the lost historical zone
In the course of functioning of the obsolete system of protection of the historical environment, many objects that are the cultural heritage of this or that region were destroyed. Destruction could be either purposeful (for example, as a result of fighting against religion or building a shopping center) and un-targeted (because of the deterioration of the buildings). & Nbsp; In any case, the destroyed object almost always lends itself to recreation, which is what must be done. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.3. Restoration of the remaining historical zone
1.5.3. Restoration of the remaining historical zone
In many cases, historical objects are preserved, but require restoration in one or another extent. The strategy states that a historic building, which can be restored, must be restored. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.4. Demolition of a new one, built on the site of the old one after 1955 within the boundaries of the historical zone
1.5.4. Demolition of a new one, built on the site of the old one after 1955 within the boundaries of the historical zone
After determining the boundaries of the historical zone in the settlement in order to create a homogeneous and authentic historical environment, new buildings that do not fit in the style frames are supposed to be demolished, regardless of their aesthetic, material and functional value. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.5. Styling where recreations are impossible because of the lack of detailed archival documents
1.5.5. Styling where recreations are impossible because of the lack of detailed archival documents
Where recreation or restoration as methods of forming a historical environment is not suitable in; the absence of the necessary archival documents, stylization is permitted, i.e. construction of a new building with large-scale and style parameters, close to the old architecture. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.6. High-altitude regulation of construction in areas directly adjacent to the historic zone
1.5.6. High-altitude regulation of construction in areas directly adjacent to the historic zone
To preserve the expressive silhouette of the settlement, which is characteristic of the pre-revolutionary era, it is necessary to limit the height of buildings built near the historical zone. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.7. Regeneration of place names
1.5.7. Regeneration of place names
Respect for history lies, among other things, in respect for its bearers. In this case, carriers are the names of cities, villages, streets, squares, ponds, etc. Almost every old toponym contains in itself something important and original, characteristic for a certain area and period. Therefore, it is important to preserve this heritage and transfer it to the future. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.8. Regulation of color decisions
1.5.8. Regulation of color decisions
Coloristic decisions in the historical zone are subject to regulation by local administrations. The color schemes of all buildings should be fixed in the form of drawings and be compared with all surrounding buildings. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.9. Historical reliability of materials
1.5.9. Historical reliability of materials
During the recent reconstructions in our settlements, there has been a negative trend towards modernizing historic buildings. Often used materials that are not used until 1955 and destroy the identity of the old building, for example: vinyl siding, polycarbonate, profiled sheet metal, etc. The strategy regulates the use of historically reliable materials for finishing the objects of the historical zone. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.10. Building Seal
1.5.10. Building Seal
The strategy recognizes that at the present moment the most rational is the city with a medium-density building. Such a development allows saving on engineering communications, on time of movement, on the cost of land, etc., and at the same time has a human scale, which is deprived of areas with high and low density of construction. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.11. Creation of databases containing as much as possible complete data about all historical objects
1.5.11. Creation of databases containing as much as possible complete data about all historical objects
To recreate the historical environment, reliance is needed on documents: photographs, drawings, texts, paintings, engravings, etc. Documents should be publicly available. This will reduce the possibility of irreparable loss (because users often save copies of the scanned materials) and facilitate the restoration of buildings in case of destruction. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.12. Modification of the cultural background - the re-creation of traditions
1.5.12. Modification of the cultural background - the re-creation of traditions
The appearance of settlements is formed not only by material, but also by ideological decisions. A diverse and interesting cultural background always increases the quality of life, which is very important to take into account. Traditions (religious or secular), like art, are our heritage, which must also be protected. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.13. Priority of financing the preservation of surviving historical artifacts
1.5.13. Priority of financing the preservation of surviving historical artifacts
The goal of preserving the historical environment is the only goal whose dependence on the time factor is critical. Therefore, it seems reasonable & nbsp; the orientation of material resources primarily to save the remaining products of the architectural development of the past, and only then to the remaining goals indicated by the Strategy. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.5.14. Warming of old buildings from the inside, not outside
1.5.14. Warming of old buildings from the inside, not outside
Modern reconstruction, unfortunately, often deprives the building of historical signs due to the installation of insulation from the outside of the wall. The solution of the problem is very simple - it is possible to make insulation from inside (provided the vapor barrier is applied). More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.6. Decrease of megacities, the rate on small settlements
1.6. Decrease of megacities, the rate on small settlements
With excessive growth, megacities become uncomfortable for residents, and also piss out the active population from the regions, making them depressed. The territory of our country must develop so evenly. as far as possible, and the Strategy proposes measures that are useful both for megacities and for the province. More information about the reduction of megacities and the rate for small settlements can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.6.1. Decentralization of the I level: Moscow - Regions
1.6.1. Decentralization of the I level: Moscow - Regions
At the moment, we can state the following fact: the city of Moscow is the main factor, & nbsp; destabilizing the periphery. The best and the most active go to the capital, thus leaving their native places of opportunity for any kind of development. In this situation, the following way out of the situation becomes obvious: legislatively, conditions are created under which the development of the capital region is blocked and at the same time stimulation of the development of the periphery. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.6.2. Decentralization of the II level: Regional Center - Region
1.6.2. Decentralization of the II level: Regional Center - Region
In addition to Moscow, as the main megalopolis, which hinders the development of peripheral settlements, some discriminatory measures are applicable to all agglomerations with more than 1-2 million inhabitants. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.7. Buildings must be different
1.7. Buildings must be different
The strategy believes that a person is worthy to choose a place for living, based not on two options (either an apartment in an apartment building or a cottage in a cottage community), but using the entire typological palette of modern architecture. In addition, we regulate the abandonment of large functionally homogeneous areas (primarily sleeping areas) to reduce the pendulum load on the transport system. More information about the goal "Buildings must be different" can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.7.1. Regulation of the required types and functions of buildings in the master plan of the settlement
1.7.1. Regulation of the required types and functions of buildings in the master plan of the settlement
Each locality should have a development plan indicating the relevance or inappropriateness of one or another type of development on its territory. In addition, the development plan must constantly take into account the changing external conditions, and not remain a stiff dogma. & Nbsp; You can find out more by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.7.2. Re-profiling or demolition of buildings that do not meet the established criteria
1.7.2. Re-profiling or demolition of buildings that do not meet the established criteria
During the monitoring, buildings that do not correspond to rational ideas about the urban environment will be identified. For example, a huge residential area of thirty-storey buildings without public buildings. In the future, these buildings must either be brought to meet the actual requirements (the first floors are converted to commercial enterprises), or demolished and replaced by a structure of a higher level. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.8. Beautiful city silhouette
1.8. Beautiful city silhouette
We understand the importance of a harmonious urban silhouette. A harmonious urban silhouette is the interaction of a uniform ordinary building and competent high-altitude dominants. A twenty-story building should not stand next to a two-story building. More information about the beautiful silhouette of the city can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.8.1. Regulation of the heights of buildings in the master plan of the settlement
1.8.1. Regulation of the heights of buildings in the master plan of the settlement
In terms of development of each settlement there should be a high-altitude regulation of the building. At the same time, there are no clear limits to the limitation of number of storeys, but orientation to a beautiful silhouette and the openness of high-altitude dominants are indispensable. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.8.2. Demolition of buildings that do not meet the established high-altitude criteria and discrediting the silhouette of the district
1.8.2. Demolition of buildings that do not meet the established high-altitude criteria and discrediting the silhouette of the district
During the monitoring, buildings that do not meet the high requirements will be identified. For example, the panel nine-story building of the 80s can cover the view of the 17th century church. In the future, these buildings must either be brought to meet the actual requirements (ie reduced their number of storeys), or demolished and replaced by the appropriate building requirements for high-rise requirements. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.9. Correct costs
1.9. Correct costs
To implement the measures proposed by the Strategy, certain material investments are required. The strategy shows interesting ways to optimize existing costs. More details about the right expenses can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.9.1. Elimination of unnecessary expenses for improvement
1.9.1. Elimination of unnecessary expenses for improvement
Analyzing the condition of most of the settlements on the territory of the Russian Federation, one can come to the conclusion that some of the measures applied to the urban and rural environment by the housing and communal services are unnecessary and even harmful. The ban on such measures will make it possible to liberate on the scale of the country quite impressive means that can help implement the Strategy. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.9.2. Priority of financing of visual
1.9.2. Priority of financing of visual
With an insufficient budget of settlements administrations, the priority direction of financing should be a visual one. Improving the visual environment is something that positively affects the standard of living of all citizens. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.9.3. Transferring the financial burden on the maintenance of buildings and adjacent areas from authorities to owners
1.9.3. Transferring the financial burden on the maintenance of buildings and adjacent areas from authorities to owners
The most interested in the good condition of the territory are the people who live on it. Therefore, a completely natural solution is the decision to use their means to improve space. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.10. Total control
1.10. Total control
To implement a qualitatively new future, we need control over the actions the Strategy speaks about. And, in addition to control, you need a constant information impact on the visual environment. More information about Full Control can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.10.1. Monitoring
1.10.1. Monitoring
Monitoring is the most important tool for monitoring the implementation of the provisions of the Strategy. Given that a quality visual environment is necessary for all of us, not only public services should be monitored, but also ordinary citizens. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.10.2. System of rewards / punishments
1.10.2. System of rewards / punishments
To motivate positive actions to develop a visual environment, two methods of influence are proposed, equally effective. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.10.3. Education system
1.10.3. Education system
All the information presented in the Strategy will not work until there is contact with the public. Transfers, lectures, seminars, publications - information should be conveyed not only to managers and designers (on which the quality of the environment depends directly), but also to ordinary citizens so that they can monitor work on the quality of their place of residence. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.10.4. Samples to follow
1.10.4. Samples to follow
What should be a quality living environment? The most obvious answer to this question is the sample of a quality environment in your city. Photos, videos and street panoramas from Yandex or Google can not be as well explained as the street through which a person passes each day. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.
1.11. Greater environmental goal
1.11. Greater environmental goal
Modern urbanism pays much attention to environmental problems. We must preserve the natural wealth that we possess, for the comfort and health of the next generations. More information about the Big Environmental Goal can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon. (The section is under construction)
1.11.1. Section in development
1.11.1. Section in development
Section in development.
Principles
2.1. Duality
2.1. Duality

The Principle of Duality: because of the difference in ideology and scale, the zone of historical development and the zone of modern development should generally exist separately from each other. More information about the principle of Duality can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

2.2. Detalization
2.2. Detalization

The Detalization Principle: quality architectural environment is formed by quality details. More information about the principle of detailed information can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

2.3. Respect
2.3. Respect

The principle of Respect: we all must respect each other and demonstrate our respect, including through the material objects to which they are involved. More information about the principle of respect can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

 

2.4. Comfort
2.4. Comfort

Life is short enough, so it makes sense to live it with the greatest possible comfort. Comfort is provided primarily by a comfortable environment. We improve the visual appearance of our world, including to achieve comfortable conditions for ourselves. More information about the principle of comfort can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

 

2.5. Availability of information
2.5. Availability of information

In the information age, information should be as accessible as possible. This applies in particular to the area covered by the Strategy. We explain in simple terms rather complicated things, carefully avoiding the bureaucratic snobbery of official regulations. More information about the principle of the availability of information can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

 

2.6. Dynamism
2.6. Dynamism

Dynamic implies: everything should change positively here and now. No - passivity and slowness. More information about the Dynamic principle can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

 

2.7. Optimism
2.7. Optimism

The strategy is optimistic about the future. Today we have access to modern technologies such as computers, the Internet and 3D printers. Also, our country has a fairly large budget for the implementation of all good ideas. And, of course, we have positive and efficient people who will make the world a better place. More information about the principle of Optimism can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

 

Apps
3.1. New Saving System
3.1. New Saving System

The New System for preserving the historical environment is an extremely important tool of the Strategy and is based on a number of very simple principles. First, unlike obsolete models of protection, we declare the protection of the entire zone of historical development, and not its individual components. And secondly, we affirm the need for regeneration, i.e. restoration of all old buildings within the boundaries of the historical zone. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

3.2. Russian silhouette
3.2. Russian silhouette

Silhouette - the conditional contour between objects located on the ground, and the atmosphere - in the old Russian cities had special and harmonious features. By now, many silhouettes have strongly deformed, and a beautiful combination of high-altitude dominants, ordinary buildings and landscaping in most places has been replaced by a chaotic and unsightly ensemble. In this concept, we tried to analyze the components of the urban silhouette and designate an algorithm for restoring this important part of the visual environment. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

3.3. Decentralization
3.3. Decentralization

The concept of decentralization shows that the prevailing model of resettlement, in which the most economically active population seeks to move to megacities (especially in the metropolitan region), leads to the inevitable degradation of the provinces. We recommend the adoption of measures that can develop the territory of the country as evenly and efficiently as possible. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

3.4. The concept of avoiding unnecessary expenses
3.4. The concept of avoiding unnecessary expenses

The lack of funds for the quality improvement of streets, and at the same time the expense of the existing budget for unnecessary processes, such as painting curbs or brick walls. We see that the reorientation of the expenditure part of the budget of the settlement will indeed help improve the visual environment. More details can be found by clicking on the corresponding icon.

 

 

1. Our goals and methods

 

 

We have quite definite, clear goals, supported by appropriate methods to achieve them. Further their description will be presented.

 

 

 

1.1. Creating a friendly environment

 

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We will be able to rise to a qualitatively new level of life if we make the world around us friendlier and get rid of the aggressive elements of the visual environment. The human habitat should be comfortable and positive. This can be achieved not only through the introduction of correct ethical norms, but also by visual methods that affect architecture, improvement, design and engineering systems.

 

 

 

What surrounds us in the urban environment, always somehow affects our emotional background. Friendly elements (for example, beautiful flowers) are reinforced with a good mood, and aggressive (for example, high fences) add a negative to nobody. In addition to psychological influence, there is also an impact on security - for example, grilles on windows through which evacuation is impossible in the event of a fire, or a guard dog capable of attacking a casual passerby. 

 

Therefore, the Strategy states that visually aggressive elements must be disposed of.

 

 

RAS 1 2

Aggressive elements of the street environment: 1 - unnecessarily high fences; 2 - barbed wire; 3 - gratings on the windows; 4 - guard dogs; 5 - plates with disrespectful to passers-by inscriptions; 6 - randomly arranged linear objects of open type

 

 

The aggressive elements of the street environment include:

 

1. Excessively high fences (can be justified in some cases).
2. Barbed wire (it is possible to use only on specially protected objects).
3. Lattices on the windows (replaced by an alarm and a sticker with a notification of its operation).
4. Watch dogs.
5. Tablets with disrespectful to passers-by inscriptions (for example, "Do not walk on lawns", "Do not litter in the forest", etc.). Learn More Respect Principle .
6. Wires, hanging in disorder in the air; street heating pipes, inaccurately wrapped in glass wool; open gas pipes - The strategy stands for the hiding of randomly arranged linear objects.

 

 

 

 

1.1.2. Increased street illumination

 

 

Often, even densely populated areas are so poorly lit that moving around them becomes unsafe. Enhance the sense of security will help install various elements of street lighting.

 

 

RAS 2 2

Increased street illumination: poor - illumination is inadequate (Mytishchi); well - the illumination is sufficient (Paris)

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.3. Love for the place you live in

 

 

Lyrical point, which is no less important than the rest.

 

It is quite difficult to imagine a person who sincerely loves Mytischi or Kupchino. But a person who does not value his place of residence is, of course, unhappy. Warm feelings towards his home may well improve his mood.

 

Therefore, the architectural environment should bring up this absolutely important feeling. And here it can be noted that the love that has arisen to Mytischi or Kupchino here and now, regardless of their present attractiveness, may well transform these areas for the better.

 

 

 

 

1.1.4. Waiver of the ghetto

 

 

Here everything is simple: in any society, unfortunately, in one way or another there are marginal elements. They are always in absolute minority.

 

If they are distributed evenly across a populated area, and within each local community there are very few of them, then they keep within certain limits, generally not causing significant harm to public comfort. And they somehow change in a positive direction, focusing on a positive society around.

 

But if marginals live compactly in large groups, this creates a very tangible problem for all other residents.

 

Therefore it is logical, for example, in the demolition of slums or the issuance of social housing, to distribute potentially dangerous social groups point-wise, rather than compact. The strategy stands for the rejection of the compact residence of one social group in one place.

 

 

RAS 51

The refusal from the compact residence of one social group in one place: bad - a typical ghetto with all the consequences (New York), well - different groups of the population are distributed fairly evenly (Stockholm)

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.5. Accessible Environment

 

 

The urban environment should be convenient for everyone, including for the less mobile citizens. Unlike nature, a person, if desired, can provide equal opportunities to all members of society.

 

 

RAS 52

Affordable environment: bad - the environment is difficult for disabled people and mothers with wheelchairs, well - elements of the urban environment are adapted for low-mobility citizens

 

 

 

 

1.1.6. Creation of comfortable and beautiful public spaces

 

 

The beginning of the 21st century showed the possibility of developing new interesting types of public spaces. There were more opportunities for the formation of the right mood of society through the transformation of the environment in which its representatives are located. Convenient streets, squares, parks and squares - all this is an important direction of our development.

 

The way to create convenient for collective recreation zones is possible both through the creation of those from scratch, and through the transformation of existing objects.

 

 

RAS 3 2

Creating comfortable and beautiful public spaces: bad - public space is uncomfortable and ugly (Kostroma); well - public space is comfortable and beautiful (Copenhagen)

 

 

 

 

1.1.7. Free access

 

 

Access to public buildings and, especially, to public territory, should be free.

   

A paranoid model of the formation of the environment, for which, for example, only schoolchildren can visit the school on the school grounds, and to enter the station one must stand in line with the metal detector and undergo a search procedure that is uncharacteristic even for the seemingly totalitarian Soviet Union. And the worst thing is that these security measures are useless (let's be honest: the school guard will never be able to help with an unexpected attack, and the congestion of people next to the metal detector at the station is a real gift for the terrorist). At the same time, the theater of security costs very tangible money, which could go on much more useful for society goals, including those related to the Strategy.

  

But the main thing, of course, is that these measures infringe upon the freedom of each of us individually, and create a negative, embittered atmosphere. Therefore - without this much better.

  

Free access also affects the courtyards of apartment buildings - the city should be hospitable and friendly. Write a pass and go through the guard to a friend's house - why?

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.8. Quality change of elements of urban design

 

 

The image of the place in which we live is formed not only by large buildings, but also by very small details like shop signboards and house numbers.

 

At the same time, the cost of small elements of the urban environment is always less than the cost of large ones. Also in this segment the speed of designing, manufacturing and installation is higher. These advantages, along with a huge visual effect on the city's appearance, oblige to pay the closest attention to the design of such objects.

 

The main thing is the centralized policy of registration of such elements. For each settlement can be issued its own design code (for example, such as "Architectural and artistic concept of placing information structures" for Moscow ). Agree that if a company employing several dozen people has a brand beech, why should it not be near a city in which there are several thousand inhabitants?

 

In the historical zone, we recommend the use of elements of design, stylized in antiquity - a holistic environment implies, among other things, the relevant details. And an excellent practice, when the surviving elements are preserved, and the new ones are simply hanged next!

 

The coats of arms of settlements are regulated by the same rule as toponims.By default, they are carried out in the schedule as of 1916. In the event that the settlement appeared after 1916 - the graphics of the coat of arms are adopted at the time of the introduction of the first official version of the coat of arms.

 

Exceptions, the appearance of the design elements of the environment is not regulated, are large shopping centers located on the outskirts, gas stations and cafes located outside the city limits. In such places, full creative freedom of action must be maintained to work on the details.

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.9. Down with the stumps!

 

 

Trees are beautiful in themselves, but we have everywhere there are strange plants with chopped branches and with almost no leaves. There are also many simply dead trees that add negative, lineal notes to the visual environment. Historical heritage is needed to save, but there is no sense in bringing this principle to the point of absurdity.

 

It is necessary to regularly remove such objects and replace them with good living, positive plants.

 

 

RAS 53

Down with stump trees: bad - partially or completely dead trees stand on one of the central streets (Tver); well - all trees are well-groomed, dead trunks and branches are removed (Berne)

 

 

 

 

1.1.10. Right for the roof

 

 

Most modern urban buildings have flat roofs. The benefit of flat roofing is, among other things, the ability to go out on it - walking, admiring the views, sunbathing, breaking a small garden. In this case, the roof, as a rule, is closed for access even to the residents of the house. Why not open this opportunity?

 

 

RAS 54

ПThe right to the roof: bad - a huge area of the roof is not used, access to it is closed even for residents (Moscow); well - the roof is planted, it can be freely accessed (New York)

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.11. Fighting icicles

 

 

In winter, late autumn and early spring, you can often see icicles on our streets. It's dangerous, it's ugly, and it can be eliminated.

 

The reason for the formation of icicles is poor thermal insulation of the roof or attic floor. Heat leaves the building through the roof and melts the bottom layer of snow. Melted snow flows down and on the edge of the roof freezes, turning into an icicle. If you build a heat insulating material on the roof with the correct thickness, the problem completely disappears.

 

 

RAS 59

Struggle with icicles: bad - very dangerous icicles were formed, workers in the process of eliminating them damage the roof (Moscow); well - due to proper thermal insulation icicles are not formed (Stockholm)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2. Clean city

 

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Dirt, puddles and garbage are obvious problems in our settlements, which strongly affect the level of visual and tactile comfort. The strategy provides for effective solutions to such problems.

 

 

 

 

1.2.1. Application of closed garbage containers

 

Some of the garbage is carried by wind and animals in cases where garbage collection containers are not equipped with covers. We recommend the use of containers with a closing lid - this simple device will protect the waste from unwanted movements.

 

 

RAS 21 2

The use of closed garbage containers: bad - the containers are open, all the garbage is in sight and it's great that the photo does not convey the smell (Kursk); well - the containers are closed, the garbage can not move along the street (Prague)

 

 

 

1.2.2. Organization of closed storm drainage

 

 

Why do puddles and ice form on pavements? This is often the result incorrectly organized bias, but also in this can be blamed and downspouts.

 

In a typical Russian building (especially with a pitched roof), the water from the roof does not merge directly into the storm sewer, but onto the sidewalk. On the sidewalk, the water lingers in the form of a liquid (puddles + wet shoes) or in the form of ice (here already broken knees and broken legs).

 

The problem is solved very simply: the industry massively produces simple parts for the removal of rainwater immediately to the sewers, bypassing the sidewalks and roads. A vertical downpipe under the ground is joined to a horizontal pipe, a small hatch is provided for periodic cleaning of this connection. The photo below shows an example:

 

 

RAS 18 2

Organization of closed storm water flow: poorly - stormwater runoff from the roof is carried out directly to the sidewalk (Novosibirsk); well - drainage of storm water from the roof is carried out directly into the storm sewage system, there is no contact with the sidewalk and the roadway (Vienna)

 

 

 

1.2.3. Less areas with open ground

 

 

Why are there so much dirt and dust in our settlements?

 

When a person comes to a bare ground or drives a car, dirt spreads all the way of movement. Therefore, our streets are dirty, and in summer, when the dirt dries, it is also dusty. In addition to the spreading of dirt by moving objects, particles move from a bare area of the earth with wind and rain.

 

The solution to the problem: a simple closing of a bare patch of land. It is enough to cover such places with a lawn, paving stones or asphalt, in order to substantially increase the purity of the place where we live.

 

 

RAS 20 2

Less areas with open ground: poorly - the ground is open and is a source of dirt and dust (Novosibirsk); well - there is no open ground (Montreal)

 

 

 

1.2.4. The ban on the arrival of cars on the surface without a hard coating within the boundaries of the locality

 

 

When driving to the ground without a hard coating (for example, on a lawn), the car produces its deformation, causing the destruction of the cover and the adhesion of the soil to the wheels. This leads to the appearance of dust and dirt along the whole further path of movement.

 

It becomes obvious the need for a ban on the entry of vehicles on such a surface. The prohibition applies only to populated areas. it is quite difficult to ensure compliance with these requirements outside their borders (for example, only unpaved roads are economically justified in sparsely populated areas).

 

 

 

1.2.5. Raising the level of the sidewalk and the carriageway relative to the level of the lawn

 

 

Dirt on the cover of roads and sidewalks is often caused by the flow of water in the rain and melting snow on areas with a lawn covering. If you have a road and pavement above ground level (in places where possible), the surfaces for movement will be clean and dry.

 

 

RAS 55

Raising the level of sidewalks and the carriageway relative to the level of the lawn: badly - the lawn is higher than the sidewalk, so dirt and water flow down to pedestrians under the feet (Ufa); well - the ground level below the level of the sidewalk, dirt and water do not reach the paving stones

 

 

 

 

1.2.6. General reconstruction of storm sewage

 

 

Most of the storm sewer at the current time requires reconstruction, cleaning, complete replacement or expansion. In order to achieve the desired effect, it is important to carry out actions with respect to storm water sewage system immediately within the boundaries of the entire settlement, without delaying some of its plots for later.

 

 

RAS 56

General reconstruction of storm sewage: poorly - the old livnevka does not cope with the load, the city is sunk (Ulyanovsk); well - storm sewage is coping well with the load (Copenhagen)

 

 

 

 

1.2.7. Compliance with the normative bias of coatings

 

 

It is extremely important to observe the normative slope of the coatings - both longitudinal and transverse. Often, it is the failure to comply with the requirements of current norms on the bias leads to the formation of undesirable phenomena in the form of puddles and mud.

 

 

RAS 57

Compliance with the normative bias of coatings: bad - the correct slope of the road is not observed, a puddle is formed at the pedestrian crossing (Penza); well - despite the pouring rain, puddles do not form, the water leaves under a slope into the livevke (Amsterdam)

 

 

 

 

1.2.8. Regular use of grader for maintenance of country roads

 

 

In some areas of Russia (for example, in the Far North or in remote villages), the construction of paved roads is not economically justified. But this fact does not negate the need for caring for the road. Moreover, modern technology in the form of a grader with impressive efficiency copes with this task.

 

 

RAS 19 2

РThe regular use of a grader for caring for country roads: bad - the road is not well maintained, dirt in addition to causing discomfort for transport, is carried for many kilometers around; good - regular use of the grader, the transverse slope of the road, created by the grader, allows the water to flow into the ditch, not creating puddles, not complicating the passage, and not causing dirt.

 

 

 

 

1.2.9. Chistoman!!

 

 

Purely not where there are no litter (although this too), but where they clean. If your area is dirty, this is most likely evidence of a low administrative level of municipal authority.

 

In the general case, specialized organizations should clean up garbage, rather than spontaneously gathering activists. If the managing company you is waiting for the spring, when you serve it , going to the subbotnik, try changing it.

 

But often enough you can actually take the initiative in your own hands and restore order yourself. For example, it can be in a dense forest, or on the side of a country road - in places that are rarely subjected to organized cleaning. Even where regular cleaning is organized, you can sometimes pick up the pack of ice cream thrown on the pavement - in time to warn effect of the "broken window" (ie prevent the potential release of additional debris at the same location).

 

Chistoman - if there is a local problem, call him!

 

 

RAS 58

Here Chistomen visited: left photo before cleaning, right after harvesting.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3. Optimization of the transport system

 

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In such a large country as the Russian Federation, it is necessary to pay special attention to transport systems. Transport is what connects us all together.

 

Well thought out infrastructure will save time and make our life more comfortable. And, importantly, it's safer.

 

 

 

 

1.3.1. Adopting the current system of transport priorities

 

 

The strategy adopts the most relevant for our time system of transport priorities. All decisions related to the formation of street space should be based on this system. From the most important to the least important: a pedestrian, a cyclist, public transport, a moving car, a parked car.

 

 

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The system of transport priorities adopted by the Strategy: I - pedestrian; II - cyclist; III - public transport; IV - moving car; V - parked car

 

 

 

 

1.3.2. The maximum possible pedestrian accessibility is a compact city

 

 

The strategy takes a course toward the reduction of megacities in part because of the importance of ensuring easy transport accessibility of urban facilities. The ideal is a settlement, where you can get to the main facilities if you want to walk for more or less a short time.

 

 

RAS 6 3

Compact city: bad - pedestrian accessibility between the objects of the city is difficult (Los Angeles); well - pedestrian accessibility between the objects of the city is optimal (Uppsala)

 

 

 

 

1.3.3. Pedestrian-friendly network of streets and public spaces

 

 

Pedestrian is the most important unit in the structure of movement. Accordingly, the network of streets and public spaces should be focused primarily on the pedestrian.

 

Specific examples of actions to adapt public spaces to pedestrians:

 

а. The level of the entrance should be located at the level of the sidewalk or slightly higher. This will help to avoid unnecessary costs for the steps and ramps, as well as ensure the safety of the pedestrian by reducing the area of slippery surfaces

 

 

RAS 7 2

The level of the entrance should be located at the level of the sidewalk or slightly higher: poorly - the level of the porch relative to the level of the sidewalk is too high (Kazan); well - the porch level relative to the sidewalk level is optimal, the area on a narrow street is saved, and the construction price is reduced (Stockholm)

 

 

б. The ban on the use of underground and aboveground pedestrian crossings, except for highways.

 

 

RAS 8 2

The ban on the use of underground and overground pedestrian crossings: bad - the road can only be crossed by an underground passage (Moscow); well - there is only a ground crossing of the road (Stockholm)

 

 

в. The entrance to the subway must be equipped with an elevator.

 

 

RAS 9 2

The entrance to the metro should be equipped with an elevator: badly - there is no lift for the movement of low-mobility citizens (Moscow); well - the lift is provided (Vienna)

 

 

г. Free pavement - no pillars and advertising structures

 

The pavement is created primarily for the movement of pedestrians, and this movement should be convenient. A post or advertisement in the middle of the sidewalk is definitely not what the person wants to see on his way. Therefore, it is reasonable to prohibit the placement of these structures on the sidewalk.

 

Exception: columns are needed in places where it is geometrically impossible to place hanging lamps (for example, where there are no buildings on both sides of the street), But in this case the post should be placed as conveniently as possible along the pedestrian path.

 

 

RAS 60

Free pavement - no pillars: bad - the pillar stands in the middle of the sidewalk (Vladimir); well - instead of a pillar a pendant light was used (Copenhagen)

 

 

RAS 61

Free pavement - no advertising constructions: bad - advertising stands in the middle of the sidewalk (St. Petersburg); well - the pavement is completely free for passage (St. Petersburg)

 

 

 

 

1.3.4. Development of bicycle infrastructure

 

 

Modern urbanism proves the effectiveness of cycling. Climatic conditions in the most populated parts of our country allow the use of the bicycle for 6-7 months (even in the southern regions of Russia even year-round operation is possible). In addition to environmental benefits, a bicycle as a transport will also improve our health indicators.

   

Of course, the bicycle must travel on specially designed and constructed roads. In addition, it is necessary to organize parking spaces, including to ensure the possibility of a transfer to public transport (for example, to the train).

 

 

RAS 10 3

Development of bicycle infrastructure: poorly - the bicycle infrastructure is underdeveloped (Samara); well - the bicycle infrastructure is developed (Amsterdam)

 

 

 

 

1.3.5. Development of public transport

 

 

With a certain increase in welfare in cities, a situation arises when car owners become too many, and they begin to interfere with each other as well as with other participants in the movement. The only way out of this kind of situation is some discrimination of car owners and stimulation of the use of public transport. This measure quite definitely allows you to unload traffic and accelerate the movement time, as well as improve environmental parameters.

 

 

RAS 11 2

Development of public transport: bad - public transport is undeveloped (San Francisco); well - public transport is developed (Seoul)

 

 

 

 

1.3.6. Safe traffic

 

 

The transport system should be as safe as possible for everyone - both for those who use vehicles and for those who are pedestrians. Increasing the level of security can be provided with fairly simple measures:

 

а. Limitation of the maximum permitted speed in settlements up to 50 km / h.

 

This solution is optimal for a pedestrian (the probability of surviving an accident at this speed is close to 20%, ie the pedestrian is likely to survive, unlike the traditional 60 km / h), and for the motorist - reduced speed will allow better control of the situation on the road and will reduce the likelihood of an unpleasant situation, including for the driver.

 

 

RAS 46

Limitation of the maximum permitted speed in the village: bad - a limit of 60 km / h; good - a limit of 50 km / h

 

 

б. Limitation of the unauthorized exceeding of the maximum permitted speed to 10 km / h within the boundaries of the settlement.

 

The permission to exceed the speed of 20 km / h without a penalty is the right solution for country roads, where the maximum permitted speed can be adjusted depending on the situation without the threat of road safety. In the city, such a rise can be dangerous, because reduces the probability of survival during an accident (to date, the actual speed allowed in the city reaches 80 km / h).

 

 

в. Teaching children (and adults) the rules of the road.

 

The strategy respects not only pedestrians, but also drivers. Quite often ignorance or ignoring the pedestrian rules of the road substitutes a law-abiding and attentive motorist, automatically turning it into the culprit of an accident. Therefore it is important to put in a person knowledge of the rules of the road from the youngest age. We offer the study of traffic rules (in a limited scope, only for pedestrians and cyclists) in kindergarten and in the first grade of the school.

 

Also, free programs of such training for adult non-car owners are recommended.

 

 

RAS 47

Teaching children the rules of the road: it's bad - neither children nor their parents do not observe traffic rules because of the lack of appropriate educational work; it is good to conduct special classes among children on the use of city streets under the SDA.

 

 

г. Installation of speed bumps.

 

It is advisable to warn the driver about a dangerous section for pedestrians not only with visual signs (signs or traffic lights), but also with tactile ones. In recent years, many policemen have appeared, and this is correct. Ideally, all pedestrian crossings within the boundaries of the locality should be marked by these effective devices.

 

 

RAS 48

Installation of speed bumps: bad - recumbent cops are absent, so the driver may not be warned about the need to reduce speed before the pedestrian crossing; well - the recumbent policeman is installed, and the driver will have to slow down before moving

 

 

д. Some groups of pedestrians (for example, invalids and pensioners) may not be in time for one traffic light phase to cross the road. For such cases it is advisable to install security islands, where you can wait for the traffic to stop on neighboring lanes.

 

 

RAS 49

Installing security islands: bad - despite the great length, the crossing is not equipped with security islands; well - security islets are set, cross the road safely

 

 

 

 

1.3.7. Paid parking in cities with increased motorization

 

 

Where increased motorization begins to harm all citizens, discriminatory measures are required in relation to private vehicles. The most important of them is the introduction of paid parking. In extreme cases, it is also possible to limit the issuance of licenses for owning a personal vehicle.

 

 

 

 

 

1.3.8. The introduction of intercepting parking in cities with large motorization

 

 

The use of personal vehicles is justified on the periphery of large cities, in places with poorly developed public transportation for some reason or another. In case of need to enter a large city, suburban motorists can be offered a variant with an intercept parking (ie parking with the possibility of a subsequent transfer to public transport).

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4. Total improvement of buildings condition

 

 

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The facades and roof of the building are the visiting card of its owners. A good owner must respect people around and maintain his part of the visual environment in good condition. Municipal authorities retain only a controlling function.

 

 

 

 

1.4.1. Repair of facades and roofs "here and now" by the owners

 

 

The condition of the building and the adjacent territory is the responsibility of its owners.

   

Owners bear responsibility in this case before the society, because their property is part of the overall visual background. Based on these input data, the repair of the building (especially the exterior) must be done at the expense of the owners, without waiting for funding from the government structures. It is also important to understand that the period for which repairs must be made can not be extended for many years. We are shaping the image of our settlements here and now, without shifting the main burden of this burden to the next generation.

 

 

 

 

1.4.2. Ban on the placement of "their" windows and doors

 

 

Because the placement of dissimilar elements filling the apertures on the facade in most cases causes disharmony, it is recommended to prohibit the self-placement of such elements. The building design should include acceptable forms of windows, doors and stained-glass windows with all the necessary dimensions (including the dimensions of the imposts, mashrooms, etc.)

 

 

RAS 15 2

The ban on the placement of "their" windows and doors: badly - each owner inserts his own windows that do not agree with the rest (Mytischi); well - only the elements of filling the openings laid in the project were used (Moscow)

 

 

 

 

1.4.3. The ban on placing air conditioners on facades

 

 

Because modern industry produces many different models of air conditioners, and the location of their outdoor units & nbsp; on the wall, as a rule, the project is not defined, the facades of our buildings are highly destructured.

 
In addition, the condensate drain is unorganized and causes known inconveniences.

 

Inaccuracy and disregard for what others see, led to chaotic streets. This effect can be eliminated by prohibiting the use of front air conditioners. The acceptable location of outdoor units are only the roofs of buildings.

 

To reduce the area of accommodation and uniformity of outdoor units of air conditioners, it is recommended that & nbsp; installation of a centralized air conditioning system, provided by a preliminary agreement between users.

 

 

RAS 17 2

The ban on the placement of air conditioners on the facades: poorly - the outdoor units of air conditioners destroy the composition of the facade (Samara); good - & nbsp; there are no outdoor air-conditioning units (St. Petersburg)

 

 

 

 

1.4.4. The ban on the placement of satellite dishes on the facades

 

 

Different models of satellite dishes placed on the walls of buildings in different places destruct the facade and sharply reduce its aesthetic value for the visual environment.

 

An acceptable location for these elements are the roofs of buildings, and a centralized installation is desirable when several users are connected to one plate.

 

 

RAS 62

The ban on the placement of satellite dishes on the facades: bad - satellite dishes destroy the composition of the facade; good - & nbsp; satellite dishes on the facades are completely absent (Tampere)

 

 

 

 

1.4.5. Prohibition of cluttering balconies

 

 

Because balconies, loggias, verandas, terraces and exploited roofs are not only a part of personal space, but also a part of public space, it will be correct to note that the owner should pay close attention to the arrangement of these elements.

 

 

RAS 16 2

The ban on cluttering balconies: bad - the balcony is made worn by the appearance of the building things (Petrozavodsk); well - on balconies only acceptable things - decorative containers with plants, tables, chairs (Prague)

 

 

 

 

1.4.6. Regulation of color decisions

 

 

Coloristic solutions within a single building & nbsp; must be determined in advance by the project, departure from them during the repair is excluded. In order to be able to choose an alternative in the project, it is possible to specify several variants of color schemes.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.5. The preservation and regeneration of the historical environment

 

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The first goal of the Strategy is the preservation and regeneration of the historical environment (for details, application "New System of Preservation").

 

We are obliged to preserve the valuable that we have got from the past generations - basically, it is architecture that was created before 1955.

 

Important: the preservation is not only for certain outstanding architectural monuments (as it was before), but for all old buildings at once. We need not separate parts, but the historical environment as a whole.

 

In addition to conservation, regeneration is also assumed - i.e. the most accurate, scientific restoration of the lost part of the historical environment, and stripping it of the latest low-level objects and details.

 

This goal is the most priority of all the objectives of the Strategy, since because of the outdated model of protection of historical buildings, the number of objects of the past with the passage of time, unfortunately, tends to zero.

 

 

 

 

1.5.1. The transition from the protection of individual architectural monuments to the protection of the historical zone as a whole

 

 

The strategy presupposes the protection of the entire historical zone within the boundaries of 1917 and 1955. The course to protect only outstanding monuments of architecture is being canceled - every building corresponding to the established time boundary is considered a monument, regardless of who and how it was built, and whether Pushkin visited him.

 

 

RAS 27

Schematic diagram of the work of the New Conservation System on the example of a conventional settlement: the division into a historical zone within the boundaries of 1917, within the boundaries of 1917-1955, and the modern zone - with high-altitude regulation and with free development of the architectural environment

 

 

 

 

1.5.2. Recreating the lost historical zone

 

 

In the course of functioning of the obsolete system of protection of the historical environment, many objects that are the cultural heritage of this or that region were destroyed. Destruction could be as purposeful (for example, as a result of the struggle against religion or the construction of a shopping center) and non-purposeful (due to the deterioration of building structures). In any case, the destroyed object almost always lends itself to recreation, which is what must be done.

 

 

RAS 28 3

Reconstruction of the lost (on the example of the Resurrection Gates, Moscow)

 

 

 

 

1.5.3. Restoration of the remaining historical zone

 

 

In many cases, objects that are suitable for inclusion in the historical zone are preserved, but require restoration in one or another extent.

 

The strategy states that a historic building that can be restored can , restore need .

 

 

RAS 29 2

Restoration of the remaining (by the example of the church of Metropolitan Peter, Moscow)

 

 

 

 

1.5.4. Demolition of a new one, built on the site of the old one after 1955 within the boundaries of the historical zone

 

 

After determining the boundaries of the historical zone in the settlement in order to create a homogeneous and authentic historical environment, it is assumed that new buildings that do not fit into the style frames are being demolished, regardless of their aesthetic, material and functional value.

 

 

RAS 30 2

Demolition of a new one, built on the site of the old one after 1955 (on the example of the Moscow Basin of 1960 built, dismantled for the reconstruction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, Moscow)

 

 

 

 

1.5.5. Styling where recreations are impossible because of the lack of detailed archival documents

 

 

Where the re-creation or restoration as methods of restoring the historical environment is not suitable in the absence of the necessary archival documents, stylization is permitted, i. E. construction of a new building with large-scale and style parameters, close to the old architecture.

 

By the way, every good architect of the past has excellent projects, not implemented for one reason or another. Why not use them?

 

 

 

 

1.5.6. High-altitude regulation of construction in areas directly adjacent to the historic zone

 

 

To preserve the expressive silhouette of the settlement, characteristic of the pre-revolutionary era (details are presented in application "Russian Silhouette"), It is necessary to limit the height of buildings being built near the historical zone. The boundaries of the high-altitude control zone are determined depending on local conditions.

 

 

RAS 31 2

Regulation of construction: bad - the regulation of construction in the historical environment is absent (Omsk); well - strict regulation of construction in the historical environment (Venice)

 

 

 

 

1.5.7. Regeneration of place names

 

 

Respect for history lies, among other things, in respect for its bearers. In this case, carriers are the names of cities, villages, streets, squares, etc. Almost every old toponym contains in itself something important and original, characteristic for a certain area and period. Therefore, it is important to preserve this heritage and transfer it to the future.

 

The specific method of renaming is simple - an object (for example, a city) should be named as it was called in 1916 (exceptions are renaming related to the First World War: for example, St. Petersburg should not be renamed into Petrograd). If the object was founded later, in the Soviet period of history or in the period of the Russian Federation, then the title should also be relevant to the period.

 

Example of using the renaming method:

 

Ul. Engels in Kostroma - in 1916 was called Pokrovskaya. Therefore, it must be renamed Pokrovskaya.

 

Ul. 26 Congress of the CPSU in Novy Urengoy - t. The new Urengoy was founded in 1975 (during the Soviet era), and the street has not changed its name since its registration, the toponym should remain the same as it is now.

 

Trans. Nikiforova in St. Petersburg - the toponym does not change, t. The lane was officially established in 2014 (during the Russian Federation) and since then its name has remained the same.

 

 

 

 

1.5.8. Regulation of color decisions

 

 

Coloristic decisions in the historical zone are subject to regulation by local administrations. The color schemes of all buildings should be fixed in the form of drawings and be compared with all surrounding buildings. The fixed color solutions, however, must allow some variability in the selection of colors (for example, the official painting of the street - in pastel colors, so the building owner can choose any pastel shade because of their good combination with each other).

 

Specific requirements for color solutions:

 

а. Using one or two colors on the facade

 

Exceptions:

 

Use of two different materials for finishing the facade, for example, a house on a stone podklet with a wooden second floor. Recommended use for painting details of white or color, nuanced different from the color of the walls.

 

 

RAS 32 2

Using one or two colors on the facade: a negative example - Syzran (left) - inappropriate multicolor on the facade; a positive example - Bergen - a simplified and spectacular color scheme within a single facade

 

 

б. The color of the socle should & nbsp; be identical to either the color of the wall, or the color of the sidewalk.

 

 

RAS 33 2

Color of the socle: Uusimaa (upper left) and Copenhagen (upper right) - examples of the color of the socle, identical to the color of the sidewalk; Paris (from the left from below) and Stavanger (from the bottom right) - examples of the color of the socle, identical to the color of the walls

 

 

в. Use one color of the roof in one building.

Exceptions:

Roofs of decorative turrets, luccarins, ventshaht outlets and chimneys may differ from the color of the main roof.

 

 

RAS 34 2

The use of the same roof color on the same building: bad - several roofing colors were used on the same building (St. Petersburg); well - one building uses the same roof color (Paris)

 

 

г. The coloring of the casts is made in the color of the roof or in the color of the walls.

 

 

д. The painting of the drainpipe is made in the color of the walls. In the case of a two-color solution of the facade (for example, a house on a stone podklet) the color of the gutter section is made in the color of the level at which it is located.

 

 

RAS 35 2

Painting a drainpipe in the color of the walls: bad - the painting of the drainpipe is not done correctly (Ulyanovsk); well - the painting of the drainpipe is executed correctly (Karlovy Vary)

 

 

е. It is inadmissible to use glossy paint.

 

 

ж. It is not allowed to paint window frames on the same building in different colors.

 

Exceptions:

 

In the case of traditional double-glazed glazing, the colors of summer and winter frames may not coincide. It is also possible to paint in a different color of the frames of the ground floor in case of placing a public room (cafe, shop, hairdresser, etc.)

 

 

RAS 36 2

It is inadmissible to paint window frames on the same building in different colors: badly - two frame colors are used in the same building (Ufa); well - one frame color was used on the same building (St. Petersburg)

 

 

и. Historically, the reliable color scheme of the building may not be mandatory in the case of a better proposal. The explanation here is the following: during the operation, any building undergoes changes in color associated with the presence of a particular paint, the taste of the owners, the current laws, etc. Which of the shades is considered historically reliable here - a big question. In addition, the architect who designs the color code of the historical zone is guided first and foremost by professional taste, knowledge, and also by the ability to shape the color of the area as a whole, which in most cases puts it in this aspect a step above the previous authors of the color solution.

 

 

 

 

1.5.9. Historical reliability of materials

 

 

During the recent reconstructions in our settlements, there has been a negative trend towards modernizing historic buildings. Often used materials that are not used until 1955 and destroy the identity of the old building, for example: vinyl siding, polycarbonate, profiled sheet metal, etc.

 

The strategy regulates the use of only historically reliable materials for finishing the objects of the historical zone.

 

 

RAS 37 2

The ban on the use of modern materials in historical areas: bad - inappropriate materials were used in the old building (Yaroslavl); well - used materials that correspond to the period of building construction (St. Petersburg)

 

 

 

RAS 38

 

The ban on the use of modern materials in historical areas: bad - inappropriate materials were used in the old building (Yaroslavl); well - used materials that correspond to the period of building construction (St. Petersburg)

 

 

 

RAS 39 2

 

Approximate options for finishing the roof in the historic zone: 1 - oxidized copper; 2 - galvanized steel, dark gray; 3-4 - shingles; 5 - tiles

 

 

 

RAS 40

 

Approximate options for finishing the sidewalks in the historical zone: 1 - paving stone monophonic; 2 - paving stone with a pattern; 3 - multicolored pavers; 4 - paving stones with vegetation between the sutures; 5 - pebble

 

 

Materials of interior decoration are not regulated.

 

It is allowed to use progressive technologies where it does not affect the appearance of buildings. For example, the restoration of the lost building with the use of a heater in order to improve the thermal characteristics.

 

Separately, it is worth mentioning the widespread practice of replacing the original windows with PVC profiles, radically different from the previous wooden ones. The strategy prohibits such actions, as negatively affecting the historical appearance.

 

Elements filling the window and door openings must be completely (except for thermal characteristics, it is allowed to use insulating glass and economic profiles with the condition of preserving the external appearance of the element) to match the samples until 1955.

 

 

RAS 41 2

The use of original elements for filling openings: bad - modern double-glazed windows with PVC profile, the configuration of which does not match the original windows (Sergiev Posad); well - original windows are applied (St. Petersburg)

 

 

 

 

1.5.10. Building Seal

 

 

The strategy recognizes that at the present moment the most comfortable is a city with a medium density construction. Such a development allows saving on engineering communications, on time of movement, on the cost of land, etc., and at the same time has a human scale.

 

But the historical density of development in most of Russia's cities was not always densely necessary. An individual dwelling house with a large private plot of land, which is the town-forming base for most settlements, must retain its status, but the land area needs to be reduced in order to comply with the notion of "dense city".

 

In order to consolidate the historical zone, it is proposed:

 

а. The construction of empty places with stylized buildings.
б. Additions of existing buildings in cases where it is aesthetically justified.
в. In exceptional cases, the movement of historical buildings to another location by technical methods.

 

 

 

 

1.5.11. Creation of databases containing as much as possible complete data about all historical objects

 

 

To recreate the historical environment, reliance is needed on documents: photographs, drawings, texts, paintings, engravings, etc. Documents should be publicly available. This will reduce the possibility of irreparable loss (for example, now in the fire of a "paper" library, we can lose original information about thousands of buildings in a couple of hours) and will facilitate the restoration of buildings in case of destruction.

 

At the moment, the following examples of databases of this type can be cited:

 

pastvu.com - Photos of objects tied to the location on the map and to the time.

 

retromap.ru - archive of maps of different datings with reference to geographic coordinates.

 

Nevertheless, we need more complete libraries that form the so-called Set for Regeneration, i.e. a collection of all available graphic and text materials required to restore each particular historic building from scratch in the event of its complete destruction.

 

 

 

 

1.5.12.Modification of the cultural background - the re-creation of traditions

 

 

The visual appearance of settlements is formed not only by material, but also by ideological decisions. A diverse and interesting cultural background always increases the quality of life, which is very important to take into account. Traditions (religious or secular), like art, are our heritage, which must also be protected.

 

The measures proposed for this purpose are the re-creation of holidays, secular and religious rituals, rituals, etc., their return to the life process.

 

 

 

 

1.5.13. Priority of financing the preservation of surviving historical artifacts

 

 

The goal of preserving the historical environment is the only goal of the Strategy, the dependence of which on the time factor is critical. Therefore, it seems reasonable to orient material resources primarily to save the remaining objects of the architectural development of the past, and only then to the remaining goals indicated by the Strategy.

 

 

 

 

1.5.14. Warming of old buildings from the inside, not outside

 

 

Modern reconstruction, unfortunately, often deprives the building of historical signs due to the installation of insulation from the outside of the wall. The solution of the problem is very simple - it is possible to make insulation from inside (provided the vapor barrier is applied).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.6. Decrease of megacities, the rate on small settlements

 

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With excessive growth, megacities become uncomfortable for residents, and also piss out the active population from the regions, making them depressed. The territory of our country should develop as evenly as possible, and the Strategy proposes measures that are useful both for megacities and for the province.

 

The main method of this goal is Decentralization (for details see here), those. a list of measures aimed at limiting the expansion of the largest megacities.

 

 

 

 

1.6.1. Decentralization of the I level: Moscow - Regions

 

 

To date, we can state the following: the city of Moscow is the main factor that destabilizes settlements on the periphery. The best and the most active go to the capital, thus leaving their native places of opportunity for any kind of development. At the same time, Moscow's expansion is not limited by legislation. On the contrary, in 2011 its territory was increased by 2.4 times, i.е. a certain signal was given to the greater degradation of the regions.

 

It should be borne in mind that the increase in the population in Moscow itself leads only to the great inconveniences of its inhabitants and is categorically harmful to everyone.

 

In this situation, the next step out of the situation becomes obvious. Legislatively, conditions are created under which the development of the capital region is blocked and simultaneously stimulates the development of the periphery.

 

Let us list the measures necessary for decentralization:

 

а. The prohibition of road construction, i.e. new roads, overpasses, tunnels, metro stations, etc.
б. Prohibition on painting any surfaces (except for places where painting affects safety)
в. The ban on the installation of elements of landscaping - decorative fences, benches, urns, lanterns, etc.
г. The prohibition of construction within a radius of 100 km from the Kremlin (with the exception of the regeneration of the historic zone, and also with the exception of the construction of new buildings in place of the old ones while maintaining
of the same construction volume)

д. The ban on the construction of schools, kindergartens, social housing.
е. The ban on holding city-wide holidays at the expense of the city budget.
ж. The abolition of subsidies for the payment of utility payments (with the exception of unprotected groups of citizens)
и. The introduction of paid parking in all settlements within a radius of 100 km from the Moscow Kremlin.
к. Blocking the development of public transport.
л. The deprivation of Moscow's capital status.
м. Uniform distribution of Moscow's best medical, financial, educational and other major institutions across the country.
н. The complete withdrawal of industry from the Moscow region (with the exception of the enterprises necessary to support the vital functions of the city's technical systems).
п. Strengthening the tax burden on organizations and individuals.

 

Prohibitive measures and budget cuts should not threaten the safety of citizens, and in principle can be specified by some or other exceptions to remove such a threat.

 

Such measures will fulfill the following tasks:

 

а. The metropolitan region will lose its appeal to potential migrants.
б. There will be an outflow of population from the Moscow region.
в. There will be a decrease in Moscow's budget and a corresponding increase in the budgets of provincial settlements.
г. Settlers from the Moscow region and residents of the provinces, left as a result of decentralization in the field, will make possible progress in the development of anthropogenic environment outside the largest megacities.
д. Moscow will reach the optimal size for Muscovites.

 

It is important to note here that, despite the seeming radical nature of the measures being taken, decentralization benefits everyone - both the province and the capital. The capital will lose its surplus population, and as a result, the quality of life of the remaining Muscovites will improve (restrictive measures, except for fixing the maximum number of residents, are established only until an acceptable level of population is reached). At the same time, the province will have the opportunity to develop by increasing the budget, inflowing investment and getting the missing active population.

 

 

RAS 12 2

Decrease in megacities, the rate on small cities: bad - a city with an excessive population (Moscow); well - a city with an acceptable population (Oslo)

 

 

 

 

1.6.2. Decentralization of the II level: Regional Center - Region

 

 

In addition to Moscow, as the main megalopolis, which hinders the development of peripheral settlements, some discriminatory measures apply to all cities with more than 1 million inhabitants.

 

Further development of the country's largest cities is possible only within the prescribed number of people and should not adversely affect comfortable living small settlements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.7. Buildings must be different

 

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The strategy believes that a person is worthy to choose a place for living, based not on two options (either an apartment in an apartment building or a cottage in a cottage community), but using the entire typological palette of modern architecture. In addition, we regulate the abandonment of large functionally homogeneous areas (primarily sleeping areas) to reduce the pendulum load on the transport system.

 

 

 

 

 

1.7.1. Regulation of the required types and functions of buildings in the master plan of the settlement

 

 

Each locality should have a development plan indicating the relevance or inappropriateness of one or another type of development on its territory. In addition, the development plan must constantly take into account the changing external conditions, and not remain a rigid dogma.

 

 

RAS 13 2

Functional and typological diversity of development: poorly - glut of the area with multi-storey sectional residential buildings, lack of public and residential types of other typology (St. Petersburg); well - functional and typological relationships are optimal (Stockholm)

 

 

 

 

1.7.2. Перепрофилирование или снос зданий, не соответствующих установленным критериям

 

 

During the monitoring, buildings that do not correspond to rational ideas about the urban environment will be identified. For example, a huge residential area of thirty-storey buildings without public buildings. In the future, these buildings must either be brought to meet the actual requirements (the first floors are converted to commercial enterprises), or demolished and replaced by a structure of a higher level.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.8. Beautiful city silhouette

 

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We understand the importance of a harmonious urban silhouette. A harmonious urban silhouette is the interaction of uniform ordinary building and competent high-altitude dominants (for more details see Appendix "Russian silhouette"). A twenty-story building should not stand next to a two-story building.

 

 

 

 

1.8.1. Regulation of the heights of buildings in the master plan of the settlement

 

 

In terms of development of each settlement there should be a high-altitude regulation of the building. At the same time, there are no clear limits to the limitation of number of storeys, but orientation to a beautiful silhouette and the openness of high-altitude dominants are indispensable.

 

 

RAS 14 2

Local high-level building uniformity: bad - the height difference of the district buildings is too high (Novosibirsk); well - the difference in heights of the buildings of the district is optimal (Bruges)

 

 

 

 

1.8.2. Demolition of buildings that do not meet the established high-altitude criteria and discrediting the silhouette of the district

 

 

During the monitoring, buildings that do not meet the high requirements will be identified. For example, the panel nine-story building of the 80s can cover the view of the 17th century church. In the future, these buildings must either be brought to meet the actual requirements (ie reduced their number of storeys), or demolished and replaced by the appropriate building requirements for high-rise requirements.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.9. Correct costs

 

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To implement the measures proposed by the Strategy, certain material investments are required. The strategy shows interesting ways to optimize existing costs.

 

 

 

 

1.9.1. Elimination of unnecessary expenses for improvement (read more - here)

 

 

Analyzing the condition of most of the settlements on the territory of the Russian Federation, one can come to the conclusion that some of the measures applied to the urban and rural environment by the housing and communal services are unnecessary and even harmful. The ban on such measures will make it possible to liberate on the scale of the country quite impressive means that can help implement the Strategy.

 

We list the actions that require prohibition:

 

 

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Painting of trees: bad - the bottom of trees is painted (Tver); well - no painting of trees (Helsinki)

 

 

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Painting curbs: bad - the border is painted (Nizhny Novgorod); good - the painting of the border is not made (Brussels)

 

 

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Painting wooden structures: bad - the tree is painted (Yasnaya Polyana), well - a tree of natural color (Stockholm)

 

 

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Painting of brick walls: bad - brick walls are painted (Kolomna); good - painting of bricks is not made (Yaroslavl)

 

 

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Installation of decorative fences, devoid of any meaning: bad - the fence is installed (Bryansk); well - there is no fence (Copenhagen)

 

 

Также:

 

Primary use of perennials instead of annuals
Farewell to safety theater (read more here)

 

 

 

 

1.9.2. Priority of financing of visual

 

 

With an insufficient budget of settlements administrations, the priority direction of financing should be a visual one. For example, repair of facades and street coverings is much more important than raising the level of wages of employees in the public sector. This repair will attract more people to the streets and visitors of the city, it will automatically increase tax collections and accordingly will do more and pay. In addition, a premature improvement in payment will temporarily raise the standard of living of only a small part of the population, while repair will improve the living conditions of all residents of the city, and for a long, many-year period.

 

Also, the right priorities in the sphere of visual development are also important.

 

For example, the reconstruction of the facade of the building is much more important than repairing the interior. interior works concern only the people who are in these rooms, while the facade affects not only those entering the building, but passing or passing by, which is incommensurably larger in quantitative terms.

 

 

 

 

1.9.3. Transferring the financial burden on the maintenance of buildings and adjacent areas from authorities to owners

 

 

The most interested in the good condition of the territory are the people who live on it. Unfortunately, modern government managers can not manage visual conditions in large areas.

 

Therefore, it makes sense to shift responsibility for the state of the visual environment from local authorities to owners. This statement also applies to financing - the financial investments in their territory should be made by the residents themselves, and not by the state.

 

On local government bodies there is only consultation, control, and also care of a small territory directly belonging to a populated point (for example, behind a city square or behind a memorial complex).

 

What does the mechanism for applying this paragraph of the Strategy look like?

 

Very simple. The administration divides the settlement into large areas (quarter / yard or street with adjacent blocks). Then the designers develop projects for the improvement of the public territory of each of these sites separately. And further developed projects are implemented by management companies. The administration only advises, controls and encourages / punishes.

 

Each yard in the middle of the micro district is a few thousand people (in the Middle Ages it corresponded to the population of a large city). To such quantity of people, without dependence from their prosperity, it is certainly convenient from the financial point of view to look after the territory.

 

Of course, in some cases, subsidies from the state are possible, but the vector should be exactly this: one who lives in a given territory is financially responsible for its aesthetic development.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.10. Total control

 

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To implement a qualitatively new future, we need control over the actions the Strategy speaks about. Constant monitoring will not stop the process of improving the Russian visual environment.

 

 

 

 

1.10.1. Monitoring

 

 

The monitoring is conditionally divided into three phases. The data of all three phases of monitoring should be publicly available and ready to be adjusted in the event of any inaccuracy.

 

The first phase involves an analysis of the current state of the settlement. Data are collected on all key environmental parameters related to the implementation of the requirements of the Strategy.

 

Then, after the production of the main design and construction works, the second phase of monitoring is needed. In the second phase, implementation or non-fulfillment of the requirements of the Strategy and project documentation is noted, comments are indicated and necessary adjustments are made.

  

The third phase involves monitoring the preservation of the state of completed facilities or their further development.

 

 

 

 

1.10.2. System of rewards / punishments

 

 

All the requirements listed in this paper are needed to achieve the main goal - to create an aesthetically pleasing environment, convenient for human life. Achieving this goal is clearly beneficial for everyone, but not everyone is ready to meet the common benefit, in one way or another interfering with the implementation of the rules listed here.

 

To motivate such citizens, two methods of influence are proposed, equally effective.

 

The first measure of influence is punishment. First of all, this is a fine or excessive tax burden. In particularly difficult cases - for example, when a historical monument is destroyed in order to build a multi-storey building - criminal prosecution is recommended, not only for customers, but also for immediate performers.

 

The second measure of influence is encouragement. Correctly fulfilling all the necessary requirements, a person can count on hidden investments in the form of tax benefits, benefits for buying / renting, etc.

 

Only a system of incentives / punishments can motivate a large part of the population to act with the necessary whole vector.

 

 

 

 

1.10.3. Education system

 

 

All the information presented in the Strategy will not work until there is contact with the public. Transfers, lectures, seminars, publications - information should be conveyed not only to managers and designers (on which the quality of the environment depends directly), but also to ordinary citizens so that they can monitor work on the quality of their place of residence.

 

By the way, why do people who manage cities / districts / houses after the graduation from education do not form further?

 

 

 

 

1.10.4. Samples to follow

 

 

What should be a quality living environment? The most obvious answer to this question is the sample of a quality environment in your city. Photos, videos and street panoramas from Yandex or Google can not be as well explained as the street through which a person passes each day.

 

We propose in each locality to create visual samples, which could tell by their appearance what is good and what is bad. It can be a few blocks, street, part of the street, the yard - what is commensurate with the budget of the settlement. Even a small piece of a good lawn can show people what is missing in the place where they live.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.11. Greater environmental goal

 

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(Section in development)

 

 

 

1.11.1. Section in development

 

Section in development

 

 

 

 

2. Our principles

 

 

Any complex process is always based on certain principles. Formation of the architectural environment, of course, must also have the fundamental settings that determine its structure. Therefore, the Strategy contains a set of fundamental principles that help to design a correct, working system.

 

 

 

2.1. Duality

 

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Consider the first principle of the Strategy - & nbsp; principle of duality of town-planning formations (in more detail - in work "New Saving System").

 

To put it briefly, we believe that today there are two very different types of town-planning fabric.

 

The first type is the historical zone. In general, this is a small and medium-storey traditional building, which has an original appearance, characteristic only of our country.

 

The second type is the modern zone. This is a new architecture with international forms, dynamic, constantly changing depending on the latest trends.

 

Both forms are very interesting, and each of them has the right to life. But we are convinced that they must exist separately. Imagine, for example, a wooden cottage surrounded by skyscrapers, or a thirty-story sectional neighborhood next to an old church. And in that, and in another case, we get a foreign element that does not coincide either in scale or ideology with the environment.

 


Therefore, the Strategy takes on the principle of Duality - the historical and modern environment should exist separately from each other.

 

 

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The principle of duality implies the separate coexistence of two different types of architectural environments: the historical zone (left) and the modern zone (on the right)

 

 

 

 

 

2.2. Detalization

 

 

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The second principle of the Strategy is Detalization.

 

Designing always comes from the general to the particular. But often it happens that the private does not pay due attention, and as a result, the general suffers.

 

The mention of the principle of detailing is necessary to emphasize the importance of every detail that surrounds us in our world. Details form the whole. The whole is formed by details.

 

Detailing will help to avoid cases when unreasoned trifles make the work of a whole collective of people senseless and even harmful for visual ecology.

 

 

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The principle of detailing: a negative example - Ekaterinburg (left) - there is no attention to details from designers and builders; a positive example - Vienna (right) - exemplary attention to detail

 

  

 

 

2.3. Respect

 

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We all have to respect each other and show our respect, including through material objects, to which we are involved.

For example, a developer should understand that he does not just build and sell square meters, but forms an environment in which I will live the people he respects. The owner of a private house must follow not only the interior, but also behind the exterior of the building, behind the lawn, behind the sidewalk and the roadway in front of the house, thereby showing respect to those who live nearby or pass by.

Respect can manifest itself in various forms and relate to different people, phenomena and events. Respect for the surrounding world from each of us will help to make our settlements really comfortable and attractive.

 

 

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Principle of Respect: it is bad - the tenants do not have respect for themselves and the surrounding world and are not expressed in the state of material objects (Yakutsk); well - the owner shows respect for himself and for the world around him through the objects to which he is involved (Seville)

 

 

 

 

2.4. Comfort

 

 

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Life is short enough, so it makes sense to live it with the greatest possible comfort. Comfort is provided primarily by a comfortable environment. We improve the visual appearance of our world, including to achieve comfortable conditions for ourselves.

 

 

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Comfortable environment: bad - the environment is uncomfortable (Mumbai), well - the environment is comfortable (Utrecht)

  

 

 

 

2.5. Availability of information

 

 

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In the information age, information should be as accessible as possible. This applies in particular to the area covered by the Strategy. We explain in simple terms rather complicated things, carefully avoiding the bureaucratic snobbery of official regulations.

 

Each point of the Strategy is open not only for professionals and amateurs to read at leisure the Codes of Rules, but also for each individual.

 

  

 

2.6. Dynamism

 

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The environment, edited by a person, should always actively change for the better. To change through labor, through creation, through the expenditure of energy. Development, active activity is what characterizes a healthy society.

 

Dynamism can be manifested, for example, in the timely repair of the sidewalk or the rapid design of the improvement of the street. Speed is also necessary to preserve the old architectural environment - time is cruel, and, in the absence of the necessary dynamics of protection, we can lose huge arrays of historical heritage.

 

Dynamic implies: everything should change positively here and now. No - passivity and slowness.

 

 

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Dynamic principle: bad - there is no positive dynamics in the place under consideration, energy costs for maintaining a good appearance are extremely low (Kineshma); well - a pattern of the presence of a constant positive dynamics, in particular, the ideal facade and landscape elements are maintained.

 

 

 

 

 

2.7. Optimism

 

 

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The strategy is optimistic about the future. Today we have access to modern technologies such as computers, the Internet and 3D printers. Also, our country has a fairly large budget for the implementation of all good ideas. And, of course, we have positive and efficient people who will make the world a better place.

 

 

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Pessimism is bad, optimism is good

 

 

 

 

4. Our information sources

 

 

The following are links to information sources, in one way or another related to the Strategy and its ideas:

 

 

Documents of Strategy

 

 

Русская Архитектурная Стратегия - the main text of the Strategy, which presents the main goals, methods and principles.

 

Приложение 3.1. Новая Система Сохранения - a detailed description of a new approach to the preservation and regeneration of the historical environment

 

Приложение 3.2. Русский Силуэт - description of our approach to the formation of the silhouette of a settlement.

 

Приложение 3.3. Децентрализация - a description of the concept of decentralization, i.e. redistribution of resources in favor of the regions in order to maximize the uniformity of the development of the territories.

 

Приложение 3.4. Концепция отказа от ненужных расходов - then, with which the development of the Strategy began in 2013. Here are the main erroneous solutions used everywhere and needing to be abolished for the release of budgetary resources.

  

 

 

 Official documents

 

 

"Сводный Стандарт благоустройства улиц Москвы" - an official document, telling about the proper design of streets. The work includes nodes for working design and is relevant not only for Moscow, but also for most other Russian cities.

 

"Дизайн-код улиц Москвы" - the official document regulating the design of the street space for our cities.

 

"Мастерплан города Перми" - a sample of what should be the masterplan of a settlement.

 

 

 

 Sites & Blogs

 

 

archdaily.com - a regularly updated site about a good and relevant modern architecture.

 

varlamov.ru - the best blog about the visual environment.

 

ruxpert.ru - a positive and rationally patriotic website about the development of the country.

 

http://gre4ark.livejournal.com/ - a regularly updated blog about modern urbanistics.

 

http://proboknet.livejournal.com/ - blog about transport.

 

http://crusandr.livejournal.com/ - blog about transport.

 

https://mostovoy.livejournal.com/ - blog about urbanistics.

 

https://gre-kow.livejournal.com/ - blog about urbanistics.

 

Архнадзор - site about the struggle for the historical environment.

 

https://pastvu.com/ - a large archive of photos with reference to time and space.

 

http://retromap.ru/ - archive of old geographic maps with reference to real coordinates.

 

 

 

Books

 

 

"Проектирование городских улиц" - a book about what our streets should be like.

 

"Проектирование городских велодорожек" - a book on quality infrastructure for cyclists.

 

 

 

5. Contacts

 

 

The Russian Architectural Strategy was developed in "Atamanenko, Architecture & Interiors" in 2013-2017. E-mail: v@atamanenko.com 

 

Programming: alexanderosin.ru